Variables familiares relacionadas con el bullying y el cyberbullying: una revisión sistemática

  • Juan M. Machimbarrena
  • Joaquín González-Cabrera
  • Maite Garaigordobil
Palabras clave: Bullying, Cyberbullying, Familia, Revisión sistemática

Resumen

Objetivo. Revisar los estudios que han analizado la relación de bullying/cyberbullying con variables del
contexto familiar. Método. Revisión sistemática, basada en el protocolo Prisma, de los documentos registrados en las principales bases de datos de psicología, que incluían las palabras clave bullying/cyberbullying y familia/padres, entre 2004 y 2017. Setenta y cuatro artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Resultados. La revisión evidenció las siguientes variables familiares asociadas con cada rol: (a) víctimas de bullying: padres/madres autoritarios, punitivos o permisivos; hogares disfuncionales, baja armonía familiar, conflictos, pobre comunicación; reciben muchas críticas, bajo apoyo/atención parental o sobreprotección; (b) cibervíctimas: padres/madres autoritarios o negligentes, conflictos familiares, bajo apoyo parental, padres/madres distantes, vínculos emocionales negativos; (c) agresores de bullying: padres/madres autoritarios, punitivos o permisivos, hogares disfuncionales, conflictos entre padres/madres, violencia doméstica, reciben rechazo, crítica y poco afecto parental; (d) ciberagresores: padres/madres autoritarios, negligentes o permisivos, y conflictos familiares. Por último, resultaron factores protectores: padres/madres democráticas, equilibrados, sin conflictos domésticos, cohesión familiar, interacciones de calidad, fácil comunicación padres-hijos, padres/madres apoyan a sus hijos, son cercanos y fomentan el apego seguro. Conclusión. Algunas variables familiares pueden ser relevantes, aunque en la probabilidad de convertirse en víctima o agresor de bullying y cyberbullying influyan otros factores, como los personales.

Biografía del autor/a

Maite Garaigordobil

Maite Garaigordobil Landazabal

Catedrática de Evaluación y Diagnóstico Psicológicos

Dpto. Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamientos Psicológicos.

Facultad de Psicología. Universidad del País Vasco.

Avda de Tolosa 70. 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián.

Tfno: 943 - 015634; Fax: 943 - 015670

E-mail: maite.garaigordobil@ehu.es

http://www.sc.ehu.es/garaigordobil

 

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Publicado
2019-11-09
Cómo citar
Machimbarrena, J., González-Cabrera, J., & Garaigordobil, M. (2019). Variables familiares relacionadas con el bullying y el cyberbullying: una revisión sistemática. Pensamiento Psicológico, 17(2), 37-56. https://doi.org/10.11144/doi:10.11144/Javerianacali.PPSI17-2.vfrb
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Artículos de investigación original