Diferencias en las decisiones utilitarias y morales entre hombres y mujeres

  • César A. Acevedo-Triana Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia
  • Juan Francisco Muñoz Olano Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia
  • Pablo Reyes Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Hospital Universitario San Ignacio
Palabras clave: Moral, juicio, decisiones, utilitarismo, deontológico.

Resumen

Objetivo. Los juicios morales se basan en decisiones que toman en cuenta la representación de las normas y la ley, los valores, la funcionalidad y la situación en sí. La moral se ha estudiado con "dilemas morales hipotéticos" para identificar el tipo de resultado y el proceso detrás del razonamiento moral. No obstante, los juicios en sí mismos no son suficientes para establecer diferencias en el tipo de resolución o la relación con otros procesos cognitivos. Por lo anterior, el presente estudio buscó comparar el desempeño en tareas de maximización de la utilidad, control cognitivo y juicios morales, teniendo en cuenta el sexo y otras variables sociodemográficas. Método. Participaron 73 estudiantes universitarios (50 mujeres, 20 hombres y 3 con sexo no reportado, la edad promedio fue 19.53 años (DE = 1.68 años). El Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) se utilizó para identificar comportamientos de maximización de la utilidad. Además, el estudio empleó la prueba de cambios de tarea y la aplicación web Máquina Moral. Resultados. Se encontró una diferencia entre las variables de IGT, sin observar diferencias en la prueba de cambios de tarea. Conclusión. En cuanto al juicio moral, los hombres dieron más valor al cumplimiento de normas que las mujeres. Algunas variables de la tarea IGT apoyan las diferencias entre los sexos. Los resultados son congruentes con las diferencias mostradas por la literatura.

Citas

American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrived from https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/

Álvarez-Díaz, J. A. (2015). Neuroética: una introducción. Valenciana, 8(15), 157–187.

Anderson, S. W., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1999). Impairment of Social and Moral Behavior Related to Early Damage in Human Prefrontal Cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 2(11), 1032–1037. doi: 10.1038/14833

Awad, E., Dsouza, S., Kim, R., Schulz, J., Henrich, J., Shariff, A., … Rahwan, I. (2018). The Moral Machine Experiment. Nature, 563(7729), 59–64. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0637-6

Bechara, A., Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H., & Anderson, S. W. (1994). Insensitivity to Future Consequences Following Damage To Human Prefrontal Cortex. Cognition, 50(1–3), 7–15.

Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., Adolphs, R., Rockland, C., & Damasio, A. R. (1995). Double Dissociation of Conditioning and Declarative Knowledge Relative to the Amygdala and Hippocampus in Humans. Science, 269(5227), 1115–1118.

Beer, J. S., Heerey, E. A., Keltner, D., Scabini, D., & Knight, R. T. (2003). The Regulatory Function of Self-Conscious Emotion: Insights from Patients with Orbitofrontal Damage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(4), 594–604. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.594

Bernhard, R. M., Chaponis, J., Siburian, R., Gallagher, P., Ransohoff, K., Wikler, D., … Greene, J. D. (2016). Variation in the Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) is Associated with Differences in Moral Judgment. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(12), 1872–1881. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsw103

Blair, R. J. (1995). A Cognitive Developmental Approach to Mortality: Investigating the Psychopath. Cognition, 57(1), 1–29.

Bocian, K., & Wojciszke, B. (2014). Self-Interest Bias in Moral Judgments of Others’ Actions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(7), 898–909. doi: 10.1177/0146167214529800

Bonnefon, J. F., Shariff, A., & Rahwan, I. (2016). The Social Dilemma of Autonomous Vehicles. Science, 352(6293), 1573–1576. doi: 10.1177/0146167214529800

Breiter, H. C., Aharon, I., Kahneman, D., Dale, A., & Shizgal, P. (2001). Functional Imaging of Neural Responses to Expectancy and Experience of Monetary Gains and Losses. Neuron, 30(2), 619–639.

Byrnes, J. P., Miller, D. C., & Schafer, W. D. (1999). Gender Differences in Risk Taking: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(3), 367–383. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.3.367

Caruana, N., Spirou, D., & Brock, J. (2017). Human Agency Beliefs Influence Behaviour During Virtual Social Interactions. PeerJ, 5, e3819. doi: 10.7717/peerj.3819

Chapais, B. (1992). The Role of Alliances in Social Inheritance of Rank among Female Primates. In Coalition and alliances in humans and other animals (1st ed., pp. 29–60). Oxford University Press.

Charness, G. & Gneezy, U. (2012). Strong Evidence for Gender Differences in Risk Taking. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 83(1), 50–58. doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.2011.06.007

Christensen, J. F. & Gomila, A. (2012). Moral Dilemmas in Cognitive Neuroscience of Moral Decision-Making: A Principled Review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(4), 1249–1264. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.02.008

Christov-Moore, L., Simpson, E. A., Coude, G., Grigaityte, K., Iacoboni, M., & Ferrari, P. F. (2014). Empathy: Gender Effects in Brain and Behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 46(4), 604–627. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.09.001

Churchland, P. S. (2012). Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells us About Morality (Vol. 77). New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Congreso de la República de Colombia. Ley 1090. Código Deontológico y Bioético del psicólogo (2006). Colombia. Retrieved from http://tribunales.colpsic.org.co/tribunales_archivos/LEY_1090_DE_2006_actualizada_mar%0Azo_2012.pdf%0AM

Cooper, P. S., Garrett, P. M., Rennie, J. L., & Karayanidis, F. (2015). Task Uncertainty can Account for Mixing and Switch Costs in Task-Switching. PLoS ONE, 10(6), 1–17. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131556

Croson, R. & Buchan, N. (1999). Gender and Culture: International Experimental Evidence from Trust Games. American Economic Review, 89, 386–391.

de Waal, F. B. (2005). How animals do business. Scientific American, 292(4), 54–61.

de Waal, F. B. M. (2008). Putting the Altruism Back into Altruism: The Evolution of Empathy. Annual Review of Psychology, 59(1), 279–300. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093625

Derevensky, J. L. & Gupta, R. (2006). Measuring Gambling Problems among Adolescents: Current Status and Future Directions. International Gambling Studies, 6(2), 201–215. doi: 10.1080/14459790600928702

Eckel, C. C. & Grossman, P. J. (2001). Chivalry and Solidarity in Ultimatum Games. Economic Inquiry, 39(2), 171–188. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2001.tb00059.x

Efferson, L. M. & Glenn, A. L. (2018). Examining Gender Differences in the Correlates of Psychopathy: A Systematic Review of Emotional, Cognitive, and Morality-Related Constructs. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 41(2), 48-61. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.05.009

Elster, J. (1989). Interacción. En J. Elster (Ed.), Tuercas y Tornillos: Una introducción a los conceptos básicos de las ciencias sociales (pp. 93–169). Barcelona: Gedisa editorial.

Fine, C. (2011). Delusions of Gender: The Real Science Behind Sex Differences. London: Icon Books.

Fontenelle, L. F., De Oliveira-Souza, R., & Moll, J. (2015). The Rise of Moral Emotions in Neuropsychiatry. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 17(4), 411–420.

Fusaro, M. & Harris, P. L. (2008). Children Assess Informant Reliability Using Bystanders’ Non-Verbal Cues. Developmental Science, 11(5), 771–777. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00728.x

Gansler, D. a., Jerram, M. W., Vannorsdall, T. D., & Schretlen, D. J. (2011). Comparing Alternative Metrics to Assess Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(9), 1040–1048. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2011.596820

Gescheidt, T., Czekóová, K., Urbánek, T., Marecek, R., Mikl, M., Kubíková, R., … Bares, M. (2012). Iowa Gambling Task in Patients with Early-Onset Parkinson’s Disease: Strategy analysis. Neurological Sciences, 33(6), 1329–1335. doi: 10.1007/s10072-012-1086-x

Gescheidt, T., Marecek, R., Mikl, M., Czekóová, K., Urbánek, T., Vanícek, J., … Bares, M. (2013). Functional Anatomy of Outcome Evaluation During Iowa Gambling Task Performance in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: An fMRI Study. Neurological Sciences, 34(12), 2159–2166. doi: 10.1007/s10072-013-1439-0

Gintins, H., Bowles, S., Boyd, R., & Fehr, E. (2005). Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: Origins, Evidence, and Consequences. In & E. F. H. Gintins, S. Bowles, R. Boyd (Ed.), Moral Sentiments and Material Interests (pp. 3–39). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Grattan, L. M. & Eslinger, P. J. (1992). Long-term Psychological Consequences of Childhood Frontal Lobe Lesion in Patient DT. Brain and Cognition, 20(1), 185–195.

Greene, J. D. (2009). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Moral Judgment. The Cognitive Neurosciences IV, 1013–1024.

Greene, J. D., Nystrom, L. E., Engell, A. D., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2004). The Neural Bases of Cognitive Conflict and Control in Moral Judgment. Neuron, 44(2), 389–400. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09.027

Greene, J. D., Sommerville, R. B., Nystrom, L. E., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment. Science, 293(5537), 2105–2108. doi: 10.1126/science.1062872

Güth, W., Schmidt, C., & Sutter, M. (2007). Bargaining Outside the Lab: A Newspaper Experiment of a Three-Person Ultimatum Game. The Economic Journal, 117(518), 449–469. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0297.2007.02025.x

Haidt, J. (2007). The New Synthesis in Moral Psychology. Science, 316(5827), 998–1002. doi: 10.1126/science.1137651

Harris, C. R., Jenkins, M., & Glaser, D. (2006). Gender Differences in Risk Assessment: Why do Women Take Fewer Risks than Men? Judgment and Decision Making, 1(1), 48–63.

Harris, P. (2000). El Funcionamiento de la Imaginación. UK Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Harris, P. L. & Corriveau, K. H. (2011). Young Children’s Selective Trust in Informants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 1179–1187. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0321

Heekeren, H. R., Wartenburger, I., Schmidt, H., Prehn, K., Schwintowski, H. P., & Villringer, A. (2005). Influence of Bodily Harm on Neural Correlates of Semantic and Moral Decision-Making. NeuroImage, 24(3), 887–897. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.09.026

Hernández, M., Denburg, N. L., & Tranel, D. (2009). A Neuropsychological Perspective on the Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Reward Processing and Decision-Making. In J. C. Dreher & L. B. T. H. of R. and D. M. Tremblay (Eds.), Handbook of Reward and Decision Making (pp. 291–306). New York: Academic Press.

Hillier, L. M. & Morrongiello, B. A. (1998). Age and Gender Differences in School-Age Children’s Appraisals of Injury Risk. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 23(4), 229–238.

Hoffman, M. L. (1994). The Contribution of Empathy to Justice and Moral Judgment. In B. Puka (Ed.), Moral Development: Reaching out. New York.

Kahneman, D. (2003). A Perspective on Judgment and Choice: Mapping Bounded Rationality. The American Psychologist, 58(9), 697–720. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.58.9.697

Kahneman, D. (2012). Pensar rápido, pensar despacio. Nueva York: Random House Mondadori.

Kant, I. (1990). Crítica de la razón pura ; ¿Qué es la ilustración? España: Universidad de Valencia.

Kedia, G., Berthoz, S., Wessa, M., Hilton, D., & Martinot, J. L. (2008). An Agent Harms a Victim: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on Specific Moral Emotions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(10), 1788–1798. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20070

Kim, J. N. & Shadlen, M. N. (1999). Neural Correlates of a Decision in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of the Macaque. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 176 - 185. doi: 10.1038/5739

Kim, R., Kleiman-Weiner, M., Abeliuk, A., Awad, E., Dsouza, S., Tenenbaum, J., & Rahwan, I. (2018). A Computational Model of Commonsense Moral Decision Making. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1801.04346

Kitcher, P. (2010). Varieties of Altruism. Economics and Philosophy, 26(2), 121–148. doi: 10.1017/S0266267110000167

Kobayakawa, M., Tsuruya, N., & Kawamura, M. (2010). Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment in Parkinson’s Disease: An Analysis of Behavioral Patterns Using a Modified Version of the Iowa Gambling Task. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(7), 453–457. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2010.04.011

Kornreich, C., Brevers, D., Ermer, E., Hanak, C., Verbanck, P., Campanella, S., & Noel, X. (2013). Polysubstance Dependent Patients Display a More Utilitarian Profile in Moral Decision-Making than Alcohol-Dependent Patients, Depressive Patients and Controls. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(3), 434–440. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.005

León, F. G., Martínez, J. M. A., Cruz, J. S. y Hernández, L. M. (2011). Emoción y toma de decisiones: teoría y aplicación de la IOWA. Revista Electrónica de Psicología Iztacala, 14(1), 333–353.

Loewenstein, G. F., Weber, E. U., Hsee, C. K., & Welch, N. (2001). Risk as Feelings. Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 267–286.

Maxmen, A. (2018). Self-Driving Car Dilemmas Reveal that Moral Choices are not Universal. Nature, 562, 469–470. doi: 0.1038/d41586-018-07135-0

Miller, D. I. & Halpern, D. F. (2014). The New Science of Cognitive Sex Differences. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18(1), 37–45. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2013.10.011

Miller, E. K. & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An Integrative Theory of Prefrontal Cortex Function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24(1), 167–202. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.167

Pascual, L., Rodrigues, P., & Gallardo-Pujol, D. (2013). How does Morality Work in the Brain? A Functional and Structural Perspective of Moral Behavior. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 7, 1 – 8. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00065

Paserman, M. D. (2007). Gender Differences in Performance in Competitive Environments: Evidence from Professional Tennis Players. SSRN Electronic Journal. 1 - 58. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.997269

Patil, I., Calò, M., Fornasier, F., Cushman, F., & Silani, G. (2017). The Behavioral and Neural Basis of Empathic Blame. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 1 - 14. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-05299-9

Patil, I., Cogoni, C., Zangrando, N., Chittaro, L., & Silani, G. (2014). Affective Basis of Judgment-Behavior Discrepancy in Virtual Experiences of Moral Dilemmas. Social Neuroscience, 9(1), 94 – 107. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2013.870091

Patil, I., Zanon, M., Novembre, G., Zangrando, N., Chittaro, L., & Silani, G. (2016). Neuroanatomical Basis of Concern-Based Altruism in Virtual Environment. Neuropsychologia, 116, 34 – 43. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.02.015

Paxton, J. M., Ungar, L., & Greene, J. D. (2012). Reflection and reasoning in moral judgment. Cognitive Science, 36(1), 163–177. doi: 10.1111/j.1551-6709.2011.01210.x

Peng, X., Jiao, C., Cui, F., Chen, Q., & Li, P. (2017). The Time Course of Indirect Moral Judgment in Gossip Processing Modulated by Different Agents. Psychophysiology, 54(10), 1459–1471. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12893

Pulford, B. D. & Colman, A. M. (1997). Overconfidence: Feedback and Item Difficulty Effects. Personality and Individual Differences, 23(1), 125–133. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00028-7

Reeve, H. K. & Keller, L. (1999). Levels of Selection: Burying the Units-of-Selection Debate and Unearthing the Crucial New Issues. In Levels of Selection in Evolution (pp. 3–14). Princenton: Princeton University Press.

Robertson, D., Snarey, J., Ousley, O., Harenski, K., DuBois-Bowman, F., Gilkey, R., & Kilts, C. (2007). The Neural Processing of Moral Sensitivity to Issues of Justice and Care. Neuropsychologia, 45(4), 755–766. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.08.014

Rogers, R. & Monsell, S. (1995). Costs of a Predictable Switch Between Simple Cognitive Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 124(2), 207–231. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.124.2.207

Ryan, A. (2000). The Philosophy of John Stuart Mill (2 ed.). Amherst: Humanity Books.

Salzman, C. D., Britten, K. H., & Newsome, W. T. (1990). Cortical Microstimulation Influences Perceptual Judgements of Motion Direction. Nature, 346, 174 - 177. doi: 10.1038/346174a0

Schaich-Borg, J., Hynes, C., Van Horn, J., Grafton, S., & Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2006). Consequences, Action, and Intention as Factors in Moral Judgments: An FMRI Investigation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(5), 803–817. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2006.18.5.803

Schaich-Borg, J., Lieberman, D., & Kiehl, K. A. (2008). Infection, Incest, and Iniquity: Investigating the Neural Correlates of Disgust and Morality. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(9), 1529–1546. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20109

Schubert, R., Gysler, M., Brown, M., & Brachinger, H. W. (2000). Gender Specific Attitudes Towards Risk and Ambiguity: An Experimental Investigation. Zürich: Center for Economic Research, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.

Silk, J. B. (2005). The Evolution of Cooperation in Primate Groups. In H. Gintis, S. Bowles, R. Boyd, & E. Fehr (Eds.), Moral Sentiments and Material Interests (pp. 43–75). London: MIT Press.

Smith, E. E. & Kosslyn, S. M. (2008). Procesos ejecutivos. En E. E. Smith & S. M. Kosslyn (Eds.), Procesos Cognitivos: Modelos y bases neurales (pp. 293–339). Madrid: Pearson - Prentice Hall.

Solnick, S. J. (2001). Gender Differences in the Ultimatum Game. Economic Inquiry, 39(2), 189–200. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2001.tb00060.x

Soutschek, A., Burke, C. J., Beharelle, A. R., Schreiber, R., Weber, S. C., Karipidis, I. I., … Tobler, P. N. (2017). The Dopaminergic Reward System Underpins Gender Differences in Social Preferences. Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 819 - 827. doi: 10.1038/s41562-017-0226-y

Sütfeld, L. R., Gast, R., König, P., & Pipa, G. (2017). Using Virtual Reality to Assess Ethical Decisions in Road Traffic Scenarios : Applicability of Value-of-Life-Based Models and Influences of Time Pressure. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 1–13. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2017.00122

Wilson, M. E., Bounar, S., Godfrey, J., Michopoulos, V., Higgins, M., & Sanchez, M. (2013). Social and Emotional Predictors of the Tempo of Puberty in Female Rhesus Monkeys. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(1), 67–83. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.04.021

Wylie, G. & Allport, A. (2000). Task Switching and the Measurement of “Switch Costs”. Psychological Research, 63(3–4), 212–233.

Yang, Y., Raine, A., Narr, K., Lencz, T., & Toga, A. (2006). Amygdala Volume Reduction in Psychopaths. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting in the Society for Research in Psychopathology.

Young, L., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., & Saxe, R. (2007). The Neural Basis of the Interaction between Theory of Mind and Moral Judgment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 104(20), 8235–8240. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0701408104

Young, L. & Saxe, R. (2008). The Neural Basis of Belief Encoding and Integration in Moral Judgment. NeuroImage, 40(4), 1912–1920. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.01.057

Publicado
2019-03-23
Cómo citar
Acevedo-Triana, C. A., Muñoz Olano, J., & Reyes, P. (2019). Diferencias en las decisiones utilitarias y morales entre hombres y mujeres. Pensamiento Psicológico, 17(1), 45-60. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javerianacali.PPSI17-1.dumd
Sección
Artículos de investigación original