Anticonceptivos hormonales masculinos, método novedoso para suprimir la producción de espermatozoides y evitar el embarazo: una revisión de la literatura

Palabras clave: Anticoncepción, Hormonas, Testosterona, Hombres, Progesterona, Agentes anticonceptivos

Resumen

En Colombia existen altas tasas de embarazo adolescente y embarazo no deseado, que por lo general recurren a abortos clandestinos, los cuales se relacionan a un alto riesgo de mortalidad. Ante este panorama se ve la necesidad de implementar métodos anticonceptivos masculinos con el fin de complementar los métodos actuales de planificación familiar. En esta revisión de la literatura, se utilizaron bases de datos como MEDLINE, Google académico, The Cochrane Library y el Ministerio de Salud Colombiano, donde se usaron los términos MeSH “Contraception” y “Male Contraceptive Agents”, con lo que se obtuvieron 124 artículos entre el periodo entre 1990 hasta 2019, se seleccionaron 39 artículos, de los cuales 26 fueron ensayos clínicos teniendo en cuenta criterios de selección. La anticoncepción hormonal masculina utiliza testosterona en monoterapia, o combinada con progestágenos o andrógenos sintéticos, con dosis y vías de administración variable, teniendo como principales efectos adversos la alteración del perfil lipídico, aumento de la hemoglobina, acné, aumento de peso y cambios de humor y en la libido; efectos reversibles al descontinuar la terapia. La eficacia del medicamento es variable dependiendo de la raza, sin embargo, se ha visto que la terapia dual entre testosterona y progestágenos o andrógenos sintéticos es de más del 90% en todas las razas. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es de describir los estudios realizados entre 1990 y 2019 respecto al uso y la efectividad de los anticonceptivos hormonales masculinos en la supresión del espermatogénesis en hombres en edad reproductiva.

Abstract:

In Colombia there are high rates of teenage pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy, which generally resort to clandestine abortions that are related with high risk of mortality. In this point of view, the need to implement male contraceptive methods is extremely important in order to complement the current family contraception. In this review, databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, The Cochrane Library and the Colombian Ministry of Health were used, using the MeSH terms “Contraception” and “Male Contraceptive Agents”. With this, we obtained 124 Articles between the period from 1990 to 2019, of these, 39 articles were selected, 26 of them were clinical selected by selection criteria. Male hormonal contraception use testosterone alone, or in combination with progestogens or synthetic androgens, with varying doses and routes of administration. The main adverse effects found were the following: alteration of the lipid profile, increased hemoglobin, acne, weight gain and changes in mood and livid; all reversible when discontinuing the therapy. The efficacy of the drug is variable depending on race, however, it has been seen that efficacy in dual therapy between testosterone and synthetic progestins or androgens is more than 90% in all races. The aim of our study is to describe the studies carried out between 1990 and 2019 regarding the use and effectiveness of male hormonal contraceptives in the suppression of spermatogenesis in men of reproductive age.

Key words: Contraception, hormones, testosterone, men, progesterone, contraceptive agents.

Biografía del autor/a

Juan Daniel Osma Pérez, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de Medicina. Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM

Isabella Olave Rueda, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de Medicina. Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

Steven Montealegre Arturo, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de Medicina. Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

Guillermo Ortega Ávila, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Bacteriólogo, Doctor en Ciencias Biomédicas, Profesor Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud

Elizabeth Londoño Velasco, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Bióloga, Magíster en Ciencias Biomédicas, Profesora Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud

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Publicado
2020-04-03
Cómo citar
Osma Pérez, J., Olave Rueda, I., Montealegre Arturo, S., Ortega Ávila, G., & Londoño Velasco, E. (2020). Anticonceptivos hormonales masculinos, método novedoso para suprimir la producción de espermatozoides y evitar el embarazo: una revisión de la literatura. Salutem Scientia Spiritus, 6(1), 49-57. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.javerianacali.edu.co/index.php/salutemscientiaspiritus/article/view/2147