Relación entre la dieta y la microbiota intestinal en mujeres embarazadas.

Diet and intestinal microbiota in pregnancy

  • Ana Sofía Córdoba Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
  • Andrés Felipe Tobar-Cárdenas Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
  • Juan Felipe Cuervo Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
  • José Guillermo Ortega Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2112-3870
Palabras clave: Microbiota intestinal, Dieta, Mujeres embarazadas, Nutrición

Resumen

Objetivo: El objetivo de este artículo es investigar si existe relación entre las distintas dietas y la microbiota intestinal en mujeres embarazadas hasta las 40 semanas de gestación.
Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en las bases de datos electrónicas MEDLINE, EMBASE, y Scopus. Se utilizaron los términos MeSH y se seleccionaron 7 artículos publicados después del año 2009, en el idioma inglés. Resultados: Se observó la diferencia en el contenido de bacterias como Collisella sp. en una dieta baja en fibra, así como de Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Blautia y Turicibacter, de igual manera la dieta vegetariana se asoció con menor contenido de Collinsella, Holdemania y Eubacterium, mientras que una dieta omnívora se relacionó con mayor abundancia de Collinsella, Ruminococcus y Christensenellaceae, a su vez la mayor ingesta de vitaminas liposolubles y ácidos grasos saturados y monoinsaturados se asoció con mayor número de Proteobacteria y Staphylococcus. Conclusiones: Existe relación entre la composición y variabilidad de la población bacteriana de la microbiota intestinal de las mujeres embarazadas y los distintos tipos de dieta, generando cambios en la composición de los microorganismos que podría conllevar a ciertos efectos en la salud perinatal. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los estudios y publicaciones científicas se basan en modelos animales, por lo que se requieren más estudios en la población humana para observar los efectos de estos cambios, y las posibles intervenciones terapéuticas que podrían implementarse durante la gestación para minimizar los riesgos y mejorar la salud materno-fetal.

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this article is to investigate whether there is a relationship between the different diets and the intestinal microbiota in pregnant women until 40 weeks of gestation. Materials y methods: A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus. The MeSH terms were used and 7 articles published after 2009 were selected in the English language. Results: The difference in bacterial content was observed as Collisella sp. in a low fiber diet, as well as Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Blautia and Turicibacter, in the same way the vegetarian diet was associated with a lower content of Collinsella, Holdemania and Eubacterium, while an omnivorous diet was associated with a greater abundance of Collinsella, Ruminococcus and Christensenellaceae, in turn the highest intake of fat-soluble vitamins and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was associated with a greater number of Proteobacteria and Staphylococcus. Conclusions: There is a relationship between the composition and variability of the bacterial population of the intestinal microbiota of pregnant women and the different types of diet, generating changes in the composition of microorganisms that could lead to certain effects on perinatal health. However, most of the studies and scientific publications are based on animal models, so more studies are required in the human population to observe the effects of these changes, and the possible therapeutic interventions that could be implemented during pregnancy to minimize risks and improve maternal-fetal health.

Key words: Gastrointestinal microbiome, diet, pregnant women, nutrition.

Biografía del autor/a

Ana Sofía Córdoba, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de Medicina, Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

Andrés Felipe Tobar-Cárdenas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de Medicina, Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

Juan Felipe Cuervo, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de Medicina, Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

José Guillermo Ortega, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Bacteriólogo y Laboratorista Clínico, Doctor en Ciencias Biomédicas, Profesor Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud.

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Publicado
2020-12-26
Cómo citar
Córdoba, A., Tobar-Cárdenas, A., Cuervo, J., & Ortega, J. (2020). Relación entre la dieta y la microbiota intestinal en mujeres embarazadas. Salutem Scientia Spiritus, 6(2), 73-77. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.javerianacali.edu.co/index.php/salutemscientiaspiritus/article/view/2250