COVID-19 en adultos mayores: Contexto clínico y social de la enfermedad en Colombia.

  • Jonattan Hernández-Segura Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1246-2101
  • Francisco Javier Tamayo Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
Palabras clave: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Manifestaciones clínicas, Complicaciones infección viral, Adulto mayor

Resumen

Antecedentes: La pandemia relacionada con el COVID-19 ha hecho surgir métodos diagnósticos y estrategias farmacológicas para contrarrestar las complicaciones pulmonares asociadas a este virus. En la literatura no se abordan suficientemente las implicaciones clínicas en cuanto a morbilidad y mortalidad del adulto mayor; este es un punto de partida para la protección y mitigación del contagio en este grupo poblacional. Objetivo: Se desarrolló una revisión de literatura para evidenciar la situación del adulto mayor respecto a la infección pandémica por el nuevo Coronavirus, identificando los factores de riesgo, la fisiopatología, las manifestaciones clínicas y el manejo clínica y social adecuado en este grupo poblacional. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en la base de datos MEDLINE a través del buscador PubMed. Se incluyeron investigaciones del 2020 que abordaran la infección por Coronavirus en adultos mayores, sus manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y manejo, recomendaciones y guías de mitigación de contagio. Resultados: Se encontraron 250 artículos de los cuales se redujo a un número de 60 artículos relacionados con los criterios de inclusión. Conclusión: A pesar del gran número de publicaciones acerca de la infección por COVID-19, no hay un consenso específico en cuanto a la infección, su diagnóstico y tratamiento en el paciente adulto mayor, por lo cual se recopiló la información dispuesta hasta el momento para dar un contexto actual de lo que hasta ahora se ha revisado en cuanto a esta infección en dicho grupo poblacional.

Abstract:

Background: The pandemic related to COVID-19 has given rise to diagnostic methods and pharmacological strategies to counteract the pulmonary complications associated with this virus. The clinical implications regarding morbidity and mortality in the elderly are not sufficiently addressed in the literature; This is a starting point for the protection and mitigation of contagion in this population group. Objective: A literature review was developed to demonstrate the situation of the elderly with respect to pandemic infection with the new Coronavirus, identifying risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and adequate clinical and social management in this population group. Materials and methods: A systematic search of the MEDLINE database was carried out through the PubMed search engine. Research from 2020 that addressed Coronavirus infection in older adults, its clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management, recommendations and guidelines for contagion mitigation were included. Results: 250 articles were found of which it was reduced to a number of 60 articles related to the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Despite the large number of publications on COVID-19 infection, there is no specific consensus regarding the infection, its diagnosis and treatment in the elderly patient, therefore the information available to date was compiled to give a current context of what has been reviewed so far regarding this infection in this population group.

Key words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, clinical manifestations, viral infection complications, older adults.

Biografía del autor/a

Jonattan Hernández-Segura, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Médico, Residente de Especialización en Medicina Familiar.

Francisco Javier Tamayo, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Médico, Especialista en Gerencia en Salud del Adulto Mayor, Especialista en Medicina Interna, Especialista en geriatría. Magíster en Salud Pública, Profesor Departamento de Clínicas Médicas, Profesor Departamento Salud Pública.

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Publicado
2020-08-12
Cómo citar
Hernández-Segura, J., & Tamayo, F. (2020). COVID-19 en adultos mayores: Contexto clínico y social de la enfermedad en Colombia. Salutem Scientia Spiritus, 6(1), 67-75. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.javerianacali.edu.co/index.php/salutemscientiaspiritus/article/view/2328