Enfermedad por SARS-CoV-2 y teorías sobre el origen de la pandemia.

  • Valeria Valencia-Osorio Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
  • Manuela Rodriguez-Arango Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
  • Natalia Realpe-Paredes Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
  • Luis David Perafán Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
  • Silverio Garzón Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7168-023X
Palabras clave: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Origen, Transmisión, Patogenia, Pangolín, Murciélago, Cultura, Tradición

Resumen

Los Coronavirus (CoV) son una familia de virus que usualmente generan enfermedades de tracto respiratorio superior. Se sugiere que el SARS-CoV-2 pertenece a la familia Coronavirus (CoV), la cual afecta principalmente las vías respiratorias, con un espectro clínico variable desde síntomas virales comunes hasta grandes afecciones pulmonares. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en diferentes bases de datos: MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, ClinicalKey y Ovid. No se limitó a ningún idioma en específico ni a factor de impacto de la revista. Se ha identificado que el virus SARS-CoV-2 puede infectar aves y mamíferos; según los datos reportados, el inicio de la enfermedad por SARS-CoV-2 ha sido relacionada con el consumo de animales como murciélago o pangolín, ya que de los primeros casos reportados, se realizó secuenciación del virus y se compararon con el humano, encontrando similitudes en los genomas. De igual forma, se ha reportado una posibilidad de transmisión fecal-oral debido a el hallazgo de virus en las heces de algunos contagiados. No se conocen todas las formas de transmisión posibles, pero después del contacto inicial entre un ser humano y el virus, su forma de transmisión persona a persona es dada mediante el contacto de gotas pequeñas respiratorias de alguien infectado por el virus. Debido al gran impacto en la salud de la población mundial por el contagio con el SARS-CoV-2 y la falta de información respecto al posible origen de este, se realizó una revisión de tema buscando identificar el origen del virus, cuyo nivel de afectación ya ha sido elevado a nivel de pandemia.

Abstract:

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that usually cause diseases of the upper respiratory tract. It is suggested that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Coronavirus (CoV) family, which mainly affects the respiratory tract, with a clinical spectrum that varies from common viral symptoms to major lung conditions. A bibliographic review was performed in different databases: MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, ClinicalKey and Ovid. It was not limited to any specific language or journal impact factor. It has been identified that the SARS-CoV-2 can infect birds and mammals; According to the reported data, the onset of SARS-CoV-2 disease has been related to the consumption of animals such as bats or pangolins, since, the first reported cases, the virus was sequenced and compared with humans, finding similarities in the genomes. Similarly, a possibility of fecal-oral transmission has been reported due to the finding of virus in the feces of some infected. After the initial contact between a human being and the virus, its form of person-to-person transmission continues to be studied, however, it is known given by the contact of small respiratory drops of someone infected with the virus. Due to the great impact on the health of the world population due to the contagion with SARS-CoV-2 and the lack of information regarding its possible origin, a review of the topic was carried out seeking to identify the origin of the virus, whose level of involvement it has already been raised to a pandemic level.

Key words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, origin, transmission, pathogeny, pangolin, bat, culture, tradition.

Biografía del autor/a

Valeria Valencia-Osorio, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de medicina, Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

Manuela Rodriguez-Arango, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de medicina, Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

Natalia Realpe-Paredes, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de medicina, Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

Luis David Perafán, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de medicina, Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

Silverio Garzón, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Biólogo, Magíster en Ciencias Biomédicas, Doctor (c) en Ciencias Biomédicas, Profesor Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud.

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Publicado
2020-08-12
Cómo citar
Valencia-Osorio, V., Rodriguez-Arango, M., Realpe-Paredes, N., Perafán, L., & Garzón, S. (2020). Enfermedad por SARS-CoV-2 y teorías sobre el origen de la pandemia. Salutem Scientia Spiritus, 6(1), 141-148. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.javerianacali.edu.co/index.php/salutemscientiaspiritus/article/view/2340