Impacto de las medidas no farmacológicas contra el SARS-CoV-2.

  • Juan David Lee-Torres Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
Palabras clave: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Epidemiología, Cuarentena, Monitoreo activo de síntomas, Seguimiento de contacto, Dinámica de enfermedades infecciosas

Resumen

.A mediados de diciembre del 2019, se empezaron a reportar casos de neumonía viral en la ciudad de Wuhan, provincia de Hubei (China). El agente infeccioso fue identificado como SARS-CoV-2 (causante de la enfermedad COVID-19). Actualmente, las medidas no farmacológicas, son la única estrategia para reducir la transmisión. En este estudio, se realizó una evaluación sobre el impacto de las diferentes medidas no farmacológicas en la reducción de los casos de COVID-19, la cual fue analizada por los diversos autores a través de diferentes modelos estadísticos. Los resultados mostraron que, 1. La restricción de los vuelos desde Wuhan y demás provincias de China no fueron efectivas para reducir la transmision, sin embargo, ayudó a reducir la transmisión del virus a nivel internacional; 2. Demostró que la extensión de festividades y el cierre de lugares públicos redujo el numero de casos; y 3. La implementación de medidas de distanciamiento social, higene de manos y aislamiento fue la segunda medida mas efectiva para disminuir los casos por SARS-CoV-2. Estas medidas fueron evaluadas como estrategias de mitigación y supresión, demostrando su aplicabilidad según el contexto socio-economico y los objetivos en cada pais. La mitigación puede usarse para preparar los sistemas de salud, mas no disminuyen el R0<1. A pesar de las limitaciones, las medidas no farmacológicas constituyen una buena estrategia para reducir la tasa de tranmision por el SARS-CoV-2 y futuras epidemias.

Abstract:

In December of 2019, cases of viral pneumonia were increasing in Wuhan, Hubei Province (China). The infectious agent was identified as SARS-CoV-2 (causing the disease COVID-19). Currently, non-pharmacological measures are the only strategy to reduce transmission. In this study, an evaluation was carried out on the impact of different non-pharmacological measures on the reduction of COVID-19 cases, analyzed statistical models. The results were: 1. The restriction of flights from Wuhan and other provinces of China were not effective in reducing transmission, however, they reduced the transmission of the virus internationally; 2. Showed that the extension of festivities and the closure of public places reduced the number of cases; and 3. The implementation of social distancing, hygienic hands and isolation measures was the second most effective measure to reduce cases of SARS-COV-2. These measures were evaluated as mitigation and suppression strategies, demonstrating their applicability according to the socio-context. economic and objectives in each country. Mitigation can modify to prepare health systems, without decreasing R0<1. Despite the limitations, non-pharmacological measures help to reduce the transmission rate for SARS-CoV-2 and future epidemics.

Biografía del autor/a

Juan David Lee-Torres, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Estudiante de medicina, Semillero de Innovadores en Salud ISSEM.

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Publicado
2020-08-12
Cómo citar
Lee-Torres, J. (2020). Impacto de las medidas no farmacológicas contra el SARS-CoV-2. Salutem Scientia Spiritus, 6(1), 187-193. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.javerianacali.edu.co/index.php/salutemscientiaspiritus/article/view/2356