Infección de sitio operatorio en un hospital nivel II en Cali - Colombia entre enero 2016 a enero 2019. Estudio transversal

Palabras clave: Infección del sitio operatorio, Factores de riesgo, Tipo de cirugía

Resumen

Introducción: La infección del sito operatorio es una causa importante de morbilidad, mortalidad, estancia hospitalaria e incremento de los costos en cuidados de la salud. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de infección del sitio operatorio y describir las características clínicas de los pacientes y los factores asociados a la severidad y al germen. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo, realizado entre el 1 de Enero de 2016 y 1 Enero de 2019 en pacientes sometidas cirugías en una institución nivel II. Resultados: La incidencia fue 0,81%, la edad  promedio fue 40,2 años, 70,2% eran mujeres. 54,1%, fueron infecciones  superficiales, 38,5% profundas y 7,3% órgano/espacio. El 54,6% se presentó en cirugías de urgencias, siendo la apendicetomía la más frecuente 28,2%. El 47,3% se dieron en cirugías limpia/contaminadas. Los microorganismos más frecuentes fueron el Estafilococo Aureus y Escherichia Coli. En el análisis univariado se halló que la cirugía de urgencia, la toma de cultivo y la E. Coli se asociaron significativamente a una infección profunda. Adicionalmente, la cirugía electiva, la estancia post operatoria menor de 2,8 días y la cirugía ginecológica  se asociaron a la presencia de E. Aureus, mientras, la infección por E. Coli se asoció significativamente a heridas contaminadas, al uso de sonda vesical y anestesia general. Conclusión: La incidencia de infección del sitio operatorio fue baja, más frecuente en cirugías de urgencias y limpia/contaminadas. La infección  profunda se  asoció  a  heridas contaminadas, a la de toma cultivo  y en infecciones por E. Coli.

 

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Infection of the surgical site is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, hospital stay and increased healthcare costs. Objective: To determine the frequency of surgical site infection and describe the clinical characteristics of the patients and associated factor with severity and pathogen. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study, conducted between January 1, 2016 and January 1, 2019 in patients undergoing surgeries at a level II institution. Results: The incidence was 0.81%, the average age was 40.2 years, and 70.2% were women. 54.1% were superficial infections, 38.5% deep and 7.3% organ / space. 54.6% it was developed in emergency surgeries, being the appendectomy the most common 28.2%. 47.3% of infection occurred in clean / contaminated surgeries. The most common microorganisms were Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli. In the univariate analysis, we found that emergency surgery, the wounds where culture was taken and E. Coli were significantly associated with the presence of deep infection. Additionally, elective surgery, a postoperative stay less than 2.8 days and gynecological surgery were associated with the presence of S. Aureus, while E. Coli infection was significantly associated with contaminated wounds, place a urinary catheter, and general anesthesia. Conclusion: The incidence of surgical site infection was low. It was frequent in emergency surgery and clean/contaminated incision. Deep infection was associated with contaminated wounds, culture taking, and E. Coli infections.

 

Key words: Surgery site infection, risk factors, type of surgery.

 

Biografía del autor/a

Olga Lucia Cuero-Vidal, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

Médica. Especialista en Ginecología y Obstetricia. Magíster en Salud Pública. Profesora del Departamento de Materno Infantil.

Johana Alejandra Moreno-Drada, Universidad del Valle

Odontóloga. Magíster en Epidemiología. Doctora en odontología (Profundización en Salud Colectiva). Profesora de la Escuela de Odontología.

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Publicado
2021-09-03
Cómo citar
Cuero-Vidal, O., & Moreno-Drada, J. (2021). Infección de sitio operatorio en un hospital nivel II en Cali - Colombia entre enero 2016 a enero 2019. Estudio transversal. Salutem Scientia Spiritus, 7(3), 14-20. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.javerianacali.edu.co/index.php/salutemscientiaspiritus/article/view/2574
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